A Twitter thread by Atif Mian.
The Muslim world led in scientific knowledge in its first few centuries, but then declined to its current lows.
Why did the decline happen?
I highly recommend this fascinating new book by @prof_ahmetkuru on the topic
Main thesis: decline started with the "ulema-state alliance" that "prevents competition and creativity".
Science flourished when there was space for critical and independent thinking - with scholars taking pride in their independence from state.
Fast-forward to today, and things are very different. From Iran & Saudi Arabia, to Pakistan, there is a pattern.
The clerics with state support stifle free speech, critical thinking and hence creativity.
Societies stagnate, and science cannot flourish in such an environment
For scientific thinking to have a chance, the state will have to extricate itself from the clutches of dogmatic clerics ... but chances look slim right now.
Here is the author Ahmet Kuru talking about his book