A Twitter thread by Atif Mian.

The Muslim world led in scientific knowledge in its first few centuries, but then declined to its current lows.

Why did the decline happen?

I highly recommend this fascinating new book by @prof_ahmetkuru on the topic

https://www.amazon.com/Islam-Authoritarianism-Underdevelopment-Historical-Comparison-ebook/dp/B07S9DBZ1R/ref=cm_cr_arp_d_product_top?ie=UTF8 …

Main thesis: decline started with the "ulema-state alliance" that "prevents competition and creativity".

Science flourished when there was space for critical and independent thinking - with scholars taking pride in their independence from state.

Fast-forward to today, and things are very different. From Iran & Saudi Arabia, to Pakistan, there is a pattern.

The clerics with state support stifle free speech, critical thinking and hence creativity.

Societies stagnate, and science cannot flourish in such an environment

For scientific thinking to have a chance, the state will have to extricate itself from the clutches of dogmatic clerics ... but chances look slim right now.

Here is the author Ahmet Kuru talking about his book

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlx98gDA9y4 …