A Twitter thread by Atif Mian.

The Muslim world led in scientific knowledge in its first few centuries, but then declined to its current lows.

Why did the decline happen?

I highly recommend this fascinating new book by @prof_ahmetkuru on the topic
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https://www.amazon.com/Islam-Authoritarianism-Underdevelopment-Historical-Comparison-ebook/dp/B07S9DBZ1R/ref=cm_cr_arp_d_product_top?ie=UTF8 …

Main thesis: decline started with the "ulema-state alliance" that "prevents competition and creativity".

Science flourished when there was space for critical and independent thinking - with scholars taking pride in their independence from state.
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Fast-forward to today, and things are very different. From Iran & Saudi Arabia, to Pakistan, there is a pattern.

The clerics with state support stifle free speech, critical thinking and hence creativity.

Societies stagnate, and science cannot flourish in such an environment
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For scientific thinking to have a chance, the state will have to extricate itself from the clutches of dogmatic clerics ... but chances look slim right now.

Here is the author Ahmet Kuru talking about his book
/end

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlx98gDA9y4 …