A Twitter thread by Douglas Craig.

A thread on Zero to One by @peterthiel - things I took/learned from the book (~100 things)

1-Every moment in business only happens once. The next Zuckerberg won’t make Facebook, nor the next Gates make Microsoft. If you are copying these guys, you aren’t learning from them.

2- Every time we create something NEW, we go from 0 to 1.

3- Technology is miraculous because it allows us to do more with less

4- Whenever Thiel interviews someone for a job, he likes to ask: “what important truth do very few people agree with you on?”

5- If you take one typewriter and build 100, you have made horizontal progress (1 to n). If you have a typewriter and build a word processor, you have made vertical progress (0 to 1).

6- At the macro level the single word for horizontal progress is globalization – taking things that work somewhere and making them work everywhere.

7- The single word for vertical progress (0 to 1) is TECHNOLOGY.

8- Its hard to develop things in big organisations.

9- Start ups operate on the principle that you need to work with other people to get stuff done, but you also need to stay small enough so you actually can

10- Advertising was too ineffective to justify cost to grow Paypal initially so they just paid people $10 to get them to sign – led to exponential growth

11- Four principles for business: a) it is better to risk boldness than triviality, b) a bad plan is better than no plan, c) competitive markets destroy profits, d) sales matter just as much as product

12- The most contrarian thing of all is not to oppose the crowd but to think for yourself

13- Under perfect competition, in the long run no company makes an economic profit. Despite economics saying its best, it is actually the worst market to be in

14- Google is a good example of a company that went 0 to 1. It hasn’t competed in search since early 2000s

15- Monopolists lie to protect themselves. They know bragging about their great monopoly invites being audited, scrutinised and attacked. Therefore they pretend to be part of a bigger pie than they actually are.

16- Example of above point: google. In may 2014 they had 68% of the search market(monopoly) yet google markets themselves as being in the worldwide advertising market where they only own 3.4% of market.

17- Remember what market you actually are in. If you justify your British restaurant in SF with logic “no-one else is doing it so we will dominate” you will likely fail. You are not competing with other British restaurants in SF, you are competing with all restaurants in SF.

18- Being the best restaurant > being the best British restaurant in SF. Best X > Best X given A and B. X is the actual market you want.

19- Non monopolists exaggerate their distinction by defining their market as the INTERSECTION of various smaller markets.

20- Monopolists, by contrast, disguise their monopoly by framing their market as the UNION of several large markets.

21- In business, money is either an important thing or it is everything. Monopolists can afford to think about things other than money; non-monopolists can’t.

22- Only one thing can allow a business to transcend the daily brute struggle for survival: monopoly profits.

23- Creative monopolists give customers more choice by adding entirely new categories of abundance.

24- “If the tendency of monopoly businesses were to hold back progress, they would be dangerous and we would be right to oppose them. But the history of progress is a history of better monopoly businesses replacing incumbents”

25- Monopoly is the condition of every successful business.

26- All happy companies are different: each one earns a monopoly by solving a unique problem. All failed companies are the same: they failed to escape competition.

27- Competition means no profits for anybody, no meaningful differentiation and a struggle for survival

28- Our educational system both drives and reflects our obsession with competition

29- Higher education is the place where people who had big plans in high school get stuck in fierce rivalries with equally smart peers over conventional careers like consulting and Investment banking

30- “All Rhodes scholars had a great future in their past”

31- War is costly business. Rivalry causes us to overemphasize old opportunities and slavishly copy what had worked in the past.

32- The hazards of imitative competition may be why people why aspergers like social ineptitude are at an advantage. They are much less likely to do what everyone else is doing

33- “amid all the tactical questions – who could price chewy dog toys most aggressively – who could create super bowl ads? – the companies totally lost sight of the wider question of whether the online pet supply market was the right space to be in” Choose your battles wisely

34- if you cant beat a rival, it may be better to merge

35- “sometimes you do have to fight. where that’s true, you should fight and win. There is no middle ground: either don’t throw any punches, or strike hard and end it quickly.”

36- Any firm with close substitutes will see its profits competed away. E.g. restaurants and nightclubs once people move to trendier/better alternatives

37- For companies to be successful they must grow and ENDURE. Many entrepreneurs focus only on short term growth. Because growth is easy to measure, durability isn’t

38- If you focus on near term growth above all else, you will miss the most important question: will this business still be around in a decade?

39- As a good rule, proprietary technology must be at least 10 times better than its closest competitor in some important dimension to lead to a real monopolistic advantage

40- The clearest way to make a 10x improvement is to invent something new

41- You can also make a 10x improvement through superior integrated design. E.g. Ipad vs all preceding tablets

42- Network effects are when a product becomes more useful when more people use it.

43- Network effects can be powerful, but you’ll never reap them unless the product is useful to its very first users when the network is necessarily small.

44- Example of starting small: facebook started with just Harvard people – not everyone on earth

45- A good startup should have the potential for great scale built into its first design. E.g. twitter doesn’t need many more features to attract more users

46- Many businesses gain only limited advantages as they grow to scale. Service busineses are especially difficult to make monopolies. Service busineses will never reach a point where a core group of people can provide something of value to millions –unlike software for example.

47- Techniques for polishing the surface don’t work without a strong underlying substance

48- When Steve Jobs returned to Apple, he didn’t just make apple a cool place to work; he slashed product lines to focus on the handful of opportunities for 10x improvements

49- every startup is small at the start. Every monopoly dominates a large share of its market. Therefore, every startup should start with a very small market. Becoz its easier to dominate a small market vs a large one

50- 100% of a $50m market >>> 1% of $5bn market

51- As you craft a plan to expand to adjacent markets, don’t disrupt: avoid competition as much as possible

52- Its much better to be the LAST mover – that is, to make the last great development in a specific market and enjoy years or even decades of monopoly profits

53- In the 1950s people were much more optimistic to business, now people a lot more negative

54- Private equity and management consultants don’t start new businesses; they squeeze extra efficiencies from old ones with incessant procedural optimisations.

55- Finance epitomises indefinite thinking because it’s the only way to make money when you have no idea how to create wealth

56 a) - When a big company makes an offer, it almost always offers too much or too little: founders only sell when they have no more concrete vision for company; in which case the acquirer probably overpaid

56 b) - founders with robust plans don’t sell, which means the offer wasn’t enough. E.g. Zuck refused $1bn offer for FB in 2006 within 10 mins, as he knew it would be worth more

57- The biggest secret in venture capital is that the best investment in a successful fund equals or outperforms the entire rest of the fund combined.

58- This leads to two rules for VCs: 1- only invest in companies with potential to return entire value of fund. Rule 1 eliminates most companies. Rule 2 is that rule 1 is the only rule as it is so restrictive.

59- bcoz of (58) – this is why investors typically put a lot more money into any company worth funding

60- The 12 biggest tech companies were venture backed. Combined they worth more than all other tech companies

61- If anything, too many people are starting their own company these days. It is better to be facebook employee #10 than to be CEO of your own company for the sake of being CEO. Differences between companies dwarf the differences in roles inside companies

62- “If everything worth doing has already been done, you may as well feign an allergy to achievement and become a barista”

63- the actual truth is that there are many more secrets left to find, but they will only yield to relentless searchers

64- when thinking what company to build, ask two questions: what secrets is nature not telling you? What secrets are people not telling you?

65- A great company is a conspiracy to change the world; when you share the secret, the recipient becomes a fellow conspirator.

66- It’s very hard to go from 0 to 1 without a team

67- To anticipate likely sources of misalignment ask 3 things: Ownership- who legally owns company? Possession- who runs company day-to-day? Control: who formally governs the company's affairs?

68- A board of three is ideal, never exceed board of 5 unless it is publicly held.

69- Hiring consultants doesn’t work, part time employees don’t work, even remote work should be avoided. Bcoz misalignment creeps in when people aren’t together full time

70- A company does better the less it pays the CEO – one of clearest patterns Thiel notices #SkinInTheGame

71- A cash poor, equity rich executive will focus on increasing the value of the company as a whole

72- If a CEO doesn’t take lowest salary then they should take highest one, as long as figure is modest as this effectively caps pay

73- People who prefer equity over cash show long term commitment

74- Don’t work with people you can't envision a long term future with

75- When ppl ask why they should work for you vs prestige choice; focus on 2 things. Your mission and your team

76- Above all do not fight perk war in reasons for people to work for you. Unique work >>> unique perks

77- Everyone in your company should be different in the same way: a tribe of like minded people fiercely devoted to the company’s mission

78- Best thing Thiel ever did at Paypal is make each person responsible for just one thing – defining roles reduced conflict

79- Is a lukewarm attitude to one’s work a sign of mental health?

80- Advertising matters because it works

81- What nerds miss is that it takes hard work to make sales look easy

82- Like acting, sales works best when hidden. None of us want to be reminded when we’re being sold

83- If you’ve invented something new but you haven’t invented an effective way to sell it, you have a bad business – no matter how good the product

84- In general, the higher the price of your product, the more you have to spend to make a sale - and the more it makes sense to spend it.

85- Complex sales (>$1m sales) work best when you don’t have salesman at all. For Palantir (Thiel’s company) the CEO spends 25 days per month on road selling product. At complex price point people want CEO not VP of sales

86- In between personal sales (salespeople needed) and traditional advertising (no salespeople) there is a deadzone ($100 -$10k ish), where few sales methods are economical

87- Advertising can work for start ups but only when your customer acquisition costs and customer lifetime value make every other distribution channel uneconomical

88- when you can only spend dozens of dollars acquiring a new customer you need the biggest microphone you can find.

89- Whoever is first to dominate the most important segment of a market with viral potential will be the last mover in the whole market

90- Most businesses get zero distribution channels to work: poor sales rather than bad product is the most common cause of failure. If you can get just one distribution channel to work, you will have a great business.

91- Never assume that people will admire your company without a public relations strategy.

92- Any prospective employee worth hiring will conduct his own diligence; so what he finds on google will be critical to the success of your business.

93- Luddites are so concerned with being replaced that we would rather we stop building new technology altogether

94 a) -Seven questions EVERY business must answer: 1; Can you create breakthrough technology instead of incremental improvements? 2; Is this the right time to start your particular business? 3; are you starting with a big share of a small market? 4; do you have the right team?

94 b) 5; do you have a way to not just create buy deliver your product? 6; will your market be defensible 10 and 20 years into the future? 7; have you identified a unique opportunity that others don’t see?

95- If you nail all 7 questions above, you will master fortune and succeed. Even with 5 or 6 it might work

96- Only when your product is 10x better can you offer the customer transparent superiority

97- “There’ s nothing wrong with a CEO who can sell, but if he actually looks like a salesman, he’s probably bad at sales and worse at tech”

98- the best problems to work on are the ones nobody else even tries to solve

99- having a head start and moving faster than anyone else is a formula for success

100- we need founders in business, we should be more tolerant of founders who seem strange or extreme; we need unusual individuals to lead companies beyond mere incrementalism. The end xx

Buy here: UK - https://www.amazon.co.uk/Zero-One-Notes-Startups-Future/dp/0804139296 …
US - https://www.amazon.com/Zero-One-Notes-Startups-Future/dp/B00M284NY2 …

cc: @trishankkarthik @ericjrems @jbritespedro @thepericulum @ruthheasman